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Governo do Mali - História

Governo do Mali - História

MALI

presidente é chefe de estado e comandante-chefe das forças armadas. Os presidentes são eleitos para mandatos de 5 anos, com o limite de dois mandatos. O presidente nomeia o primeiro-ministro como chefe do governo.

A Assembleia Nacional é o único braço legislativo do governo. Atualmente é composto por 116 membros, mas 13 assentos adicionais foram atribuídos a malineses no exterior e 4 a tuaregues do Mali deslocados pela rebelião.

GOVERNO ATUAL
Pres.Amadou Toumani TOURE
Prime Min.Modibo SIDIBE
Min. da agriculturaAgatheane Ag ALASSANE
Min. de Comunicações e TecnologiaDiarra Mariam Flantie DIALLO
Min. de culturaMohamed El MOCTAR
Min. de Defesa e VeteranosNatie PLEA
Min. de Economia e FinançasSanoussi TOURE
Min. de Emprego e Formação ProfissionalIbrahima N'DIAYE
Min. de Energia e Recursos HídricosAhmed SOW
Min. de Meio Ambiente e SaneamentoTiemoko SANGARE
Min. de Equipamentos e TransporteAhmed Diane SEMEGA
Min. das Relações ExterioresMoctar OUANE
Min. da SaúdeOumar Ibrahima TOURE
Min. de Habitação e UrbanismoGakou Salimata FOFONA
Min. da Indústria, Investimento e ComércioAhmadou Abdoulaye DIALLO
Min. de Segurança Interna e Proteção CivilSadio GASSAMA, Col.
Min. da Justiça e Guardião dos SelosMaharafa TRAORE
Min. de Trabalho, Reformas do Estado e Relações com as InstituiçõesAbdoul Wahab BERTHE
Min. de Pecuária e PescaDiallo Madeleine BA
Min. de Malienses no Exterior e Integração AfricanaBadra Alou MACALOU
Min. de MinasAbubakar TRAORE
Min. de Planejamento e Desenvolvimento NacionalMarimantia DIARRA
Min. de educação primária, alfabetização e línguas nacionaisSalikou SANOGO
Min. de Promoção de Investimentos e Médias e Pequenas EmpresasOusmane THIAM
Min. de Promoção de Mulheres, Crianças e Assuntos FamiliaresMaiga Sina DAMBA
Min. de Educação Secundária e Superior e Pesquisa CientíficaSiby Ginette BELLEGARDE
Min. de Desenvolvimento Social, Solidariedade e IdososSekou DIAKITE
Min. de Admin Territorial. Comunidades e locaisKafougouna KONE, Gen.
Min. de Turismo, Artes e OfíciosD'Diaye BA
Min. da Juventude e EsportesHamane NIANG
Embaixador nos EUAAbdoulaye DIOP
Representante Permanente junto à ONU, Nova YorkOumar DAOU


Governo do Mali - História

A falta de compreensão histórica e a desconfiança mútua entre Bamako e seu território do norte têm desempenhado um papel importante na instabilidade do Mali por décadas. Ao ignorar as aspirações do norte de desenvolvimento econômico (especialmente infraestrutura social e econômica) ou representação política (falta de assentos governamentais, por exemplo), as autoridades do Mali abriram caminho para contestação violenta e ações separatistas. O apoio popular entre as populações tuaregues e árabes a alguns movimentos rebeldes e grupos armados e a autoridade que os líderes rebeldes têm sobre algumas populações do norte são boas ilustrações das desigualdades vividas coletivamente pela população do norte.

As rebeliões subsequentes no Mali, por sua vez, agravaram a desconfiança de longa data da comunidade. O rescaldo das rebeliões e as negociações que levaram a "acordos de paz" também fomentaram tensões entre as comunidades do norte, já que alguns grupos usaram essas situações para defender seus próprios interesses.

As divisões étnicas e a ilegalidade, devido à retirada do estado do Mali, que caracterizaram o rescaldo das rebeliões, representaram uma janela de oportunidade para os grupos terroristas se estabelecerem no norte. Prosperando no tráfico ilícito e misturando-se com as populações locais, esses grupos conseguiram gradualmente ganhar influência antes da crise de 2012.

Este capítulo explica os problemas de segurança criados por tensões na sociedade do Mali e descreve como o governo central tentou resolvê-los.


O Império do Mali (1230-1600)

O Império do Mali foi um dos maiores impérios da história da África Ocidental e, em seu auge, estendeu-se da costa do Atlântico às partes centrais do deserto do Saara [i]. O Império foi fundado em 1235 CE pelo lendário Rei Sundiata [ii] e durou até o início de 1600 CE [iii]. O governante mais famoso do Império foi nomeado Mansa Musa, e os cronistas da época escreveram que quando ele viajou para Meca em uma peregrinação, ele distribuiu tanto ouro que causou uma grande inflação que durou uma década [iv].

O Império do Mali surgiu com a consolidação de vários pequenos Reinos Malinké em Gana em torno das áreas do alto rio Níger [v]. Muito do que se sabe sobre o início da história do Império do Mali foi coletado por estudiosos árabes nos anos 1300 e 1400 [vi]. Um rei chamado Sumanguru Kanté governou o Reino de Susu, que conquistou o povo Malinké no início do século 13 [vii]. O rei conhecido como Sundiata (também soletrado Sunjata) organizou a resistência Malinké contra o Reino de Susu [viii], e muitos historiadores acreditam que Sundiata, como Conrad David e Innes Gordon, fundou o Mali quando derrotou Sumanguru Kanté em 1235 [ ix] [x].

O desenvolvimento do império começou em sua capital, Niani, que também foi coincidentemente o local de nascimento do fundador do império e rei Sundiata [xi]. Sundiata construiu um vasto império que se estendia da costa atlântica ao sul do rio Senegal até Goa, a leste da curva do Médio Níger.

Economia e sociedade no Império do Mali

O Império do Mali consistia em áreas remotas e pequenos reinos. Todos esses reinos juraram lealdade ao Mali, oferecendo tributos anuais na forma de arroz, painço, lanças e flechas [xii]. O Mali prosperou com os impostos cobrados de seus cidadãos, e todos os bens trazidos para dentro e fora do Império eram pesadamente tributados, enquanto todas as pepitas de ouro pertenciam ao rei. No entanto, o pó de ouro podia ser comercializado e, em certos momentos, o pó de ouro era usado como moeda junto com sal e tecido de algodão [xiii]. As conchas de caubói do Oceano Índico foram mais tarde usadas como moeda no comércio interno do Saara Ocidental [xiv].

Mali, e especialmente a cidade de Timbuktu, era famoso como um centro de aprendizado e arquitetura espetacular [xv], como o Sankara Madrassa - um grande centro de aprendizado - e a Universidade de Sankore que continuou a produzir muitos astrônomos, acadêmicos e engenheiros muito depois do fim do Império do Mali. Considera-se que a ocupação colonial francesa contribuiu para o declínio da qualidade da educação da Universidade [xvi].

Enquanto o Mali era uma monarquia governada pelo Mansa ou Mestre, muito do poder do estado estava nas mãos dos oficiais do tribunal [xvii]. Isso significava que o Império poderia sobreviver a vários períodos de instabilidade e uma série de governantes ruins. O Império do Mali também era um império multiétnico e multilíngue, e o Islã era a religião dominante [xviii].

Os governantes do Mali adotaram o título de ‘Mansa’ [xix]. O fundador do Mali, Sundiata, estabeleceu-se firmemente como um forte líder tanto no sentido religioso quanto no secular [xx], alegando que ele tinha uma ligação direta com os espíritos da terra, tornando-o o guardião dos ancestrais. Seu império se estendeu das bordas da floresta no sudoeste, através da região de pastagens de Malinké, até os portos do Sahel e do sul do Saara de Walatta e Tandmekka [xxi], e estudiosos árabes estimam que Sundiata governou por cerca de 25 anos e morreu em 1255 [xxii].

Apesar da grande extensão do Império do Mali, muitas vezes foi atormentado por uma liderança insuficiente [xxiii]. No entanto, o filho de Sundiata, Mansa Wali [xxiv], que se tornou o próximo rei, é considerado um dos governantes mais poderosos do Mali [xxv]. Mansa Wali seria, por sua vez, sucedido por seu irmão Wati, que foi sucedido por seu irmão chamado Kahlifa [xxvi]. Kahlifa era visto como um governante particularmente ruim, e alguns cronistas descrevem como ele usava arcos e flechas para matar pessoas para se divertir [xxvii]. Por causa de seu desgoverno, Kahlifa foi deposto e substituído por um neto de Sundiata chamado Abu Bakr [xxviii]. Abu Bakr foi adotado por Sundiata como filho, embora fosse neto e filho da filha de Sundiata, o que teria fortalecido muito sua reivindicação ao trono [xxix].

Os problemas de liderança no Império do Mali continuariam após a ascensão de Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr foi deposto em um golpe por um homem chamado Sakura, que era escravo [xxx] ou comandante militar [xxxi]. A baixa estatura de Sakura talvez implique que a família real perdeu muito de sua popularidade entre as pessoas comuns [xxxii]. O reinado de Sakura, no entanto, também seria problemático depois que ele se converteu ao Islã. Sakura empreendeu uma peregrinação a Meca, mas foi morta pelo povo Danakil [xxxiii] durante sua jornada de retorno enquanto estava na cidade de Tadjoura [xxxiv]. Discute-se por que Sakura estava em Tadjoura, já que não era um caminho natural para retornar de Meca ao Mali, e também por quais motivos ele foi morto [xxxv]. Alguns sugerem que ele foi morto porque o Danakil queria roubar seu ouro [xxxvi].

A ascensão de Sakura ao poder também nos mostra que a família governante, e a Mansa, tinham poder limitado no Império do Mali e que os oficiais da corte detinham um poder significativo [xxxvii] em comparação. O Império do Mali foi organizado em províncias com uma estrutura hierárquica estrita [xxxviii] em que cada província tinha um governador e cada cidade tinha um prefeito ou mochrif [xxxix]. Grandes exércitos foram implantados para impedir qualquer rebelião nos reinos menores e para proteger as muitas rotas comerciais [xl]. A descentralização do poder para níveis mais baixos da burocracia governamental por meio de oficiais da corte, juntamente com uma estrutura hierárquica estrita, foi parte do motivo pelo qual o Império do Mali era tão estável, apesar de uma série de governantes ruins [xli]. Apesar das disputas dentro da família governante, a devolução do poder administrativo do estado por meio de estruturas inferiores significava que o Império poderia funcionar muito bem. Em tempos de bons governantes, o Império expandiria seu território, tornando-o um dos maiores Impérios da história da África Ocidental [xlii].

O famoso Mansa Musa

Foi neste contexto que o governante mais famoso do Império do Mali, Mansa Musa, ascendeu ao trono. É debatido pelos historiadores se Mansa Musa era neto de um dos irmãos de Sundiata, tornando-o sobrinho-neto de Sundiata, ou se ele era neto de Abu Bakr [xliii]. O que se sabe é que Mansa Musa se converteu ao Islã e fez uma peregrinação a Meca em 1324, acompanhada por 60 mil indivíduos e grandes quantidades de ouro [xliv]. Sua generosidade era supostamente tão grande que, ao deixar Meca, ele já havia usado todas as moedas de ouro que levara consigo e teve que pedir dinheiro emprestado para a viagem de volta [xlv].

Mansa Musa era conhecido por ser um governante sábio e eficiente, e uma de suas maiores realizações foi a comissão de alguns dos maiores edifícios de Timbuktu. Em 1327, a Grande Mesquita em Timbuktu foi construída [xlvi] e Timbuktu mais tarde se tornaria um centro de aprendizagem [xlvii]. No final do reinado de Mansa Musa, ele construiu e financiou a Sankara Madrassa, que posteriormente se tornou um dos maiores centros de aprendizagem do mundo islâmico e a maior biblioteca da África na época [xlviii]. Estima-se que o Sankara Madrassa abrigou entre 250.000 e 700.000 manuscritos, tornando-se a maior biblioteca da África desde a Grande Biblioteca de Alexandria [xlix]. Algumas fontes afirmam que durante seu reinado Mansa Musa conquistou 24 cidades com suas terras circundantes, expandindo assim o império [l]. Estima-se que Mansa Musa morreu em 1337 e passaria o título de Mansa para seu filho, Mansa Maghan [li].

A Grande Mesquita de Timbuktu

O declínio do Império do Mali

O período de 1360 a 1390 foi um período de dificuldades para o Império do Mali [lii]. O Império sofreu sob vários governantes ruins com reinados curtos [liii]. O trono mudou de mãos entre vários membros da família governante e a certa altura foi apreendido por um homem chamado Mahmud, que não era do Mali nem fazia parte da família governante [liv]. Eventualmente, Mansa Mari Djata II conseguiu recuperar o trono para a dinastia governante, mas seu governo despótico arruinou o estado [lv]. Como nos anos anteriores, foi um oficial da corte que trouxe o Império de volta aos trilhos após uma série de governantes ruins. Mari Djarta, um ‘wazir’ (ministro), assumiu o poder e governou, essencialmente agindo como regente, através do rei Mansa Musa II [lvi]. Durante o reinado de Mari Djarta (também conhecido como Mari Djarta III), o Império do Mali restauraria parte do poder que havia perdido durante os 30 anos anteriores de desgoverno e guerra civil [lvii].

Mansa Musa II morreu em 1387 e foi sucedido por seu irmão Mansa Magha II, que também seria o fantoche de poderosos oficiais da corte [lviii]. Depois de um ano, Mansa Musa II foi morto, encerrando assim a linhagem de reis que descendia de Mansa Musa I [lix]. Isso desencadeou o declínio do Império do Mali e em 1433 a cidade foi conquistada por nômades tuaregues [lx]. Pelos próximos 100 anos, o Império lentamente daria lugar aos conquistadores Songhay do leste, e por volta de 1500 ele havia sido reduzido a apenas suas terras centrais Malinké [lxi]. Durante o século 17, Mali havia se dividido em uma série de chefias independentes menores e, portanto, o Império do Mali não era mais a superpotência que tinha sido em seus primórdios [lxii].

[i] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 39. ↵

[ii] Innes, Gordon. 1974. Sunjata: Three Mandinke Versions. Escola de Estudos Orientais e Africanos da Universidade de Londres. Rua Male, Londres. Página 1. ↵

[iii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 59. ↵

[v] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 39. ↵

[vi] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Os Reis dos Séculos XIII e XIV do Mali” em Journalof African History, IV, 3 (1963), pp. 34I-353. Página 341. ↵

[vii] C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 42. ↵

[ix] Gordon. 1974. Sunjata: Three Mandinke Versions. Escola de Estudos Orientais e Africanos da Universidade de Londres. Rua Male, Londres. Página 1. ↵

[x] Innes, Gordon. 1974. Sunjata: Three Mandinke Versions. Escola de Estudos Orientais e Africanos da Universidade de Londres. Rua Male, Londres. Página 1. ↵

[xi] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 34. ↵

[xii] Togola, Téréba. 1996. “Ocupação da Idade do Ferro na Região de Méma, Mali” em The African Archaeological Review, vol. 13, No. 2 (junho, 1996), pp. 91-110. Página 95. ↵

[xiii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 34. ↵

[xv] Shuriye, Abdi O. e Ibrahim, Dauda Sh. 2013. “Timbuktu Civilization and its Significance in Islamic History” in Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Publishing MCSER, Roma-Itália Vol. 4 No 11 de outubro de 2013. Página 697. ↵

[xvii] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Os Reis dos Séculos XIII e XIV do Mali” em Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), pp. 34I-353. Página 350. ↵

[xviii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 34. ↵

[ixx] David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xxv] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Os Reis dos Séculos XIII e XIV do Mali” no Jornal ↵

[xxxi] C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xxxiii] Beckingham, C.F. 1953. “Boletim da Escola de Estudos Orientais e Africanos” em Estudos Africanos. Boletim da Escola de Estudos Orientais e Africanos / Volume 15 / Edição 02 / junho de 1953, pp 391-392. ↵

[xxxiv] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Os Reis dos Séculos XIII e XIV do Mali” em Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), pp. 34I-353. Página 345. ↵

[xxxvii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xxxviii] Togola, Téréba. 1996. “Ocupação da Idade do Ferro na Região de Méma, Mali” em The African Archaeological Review, vol. 13, No. 2 (junho, 1996), pp. 91-110. Página 95. ↵

[xxxix] McDowell, Linda e Mackay, Marilyn. 2005. Guia do professor para sociedades de história mundial do passado. Portage e Main Press. Winnipeg, Canadá. Página 246. ↵

[xli] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[xliii] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Os Reis dos Séculos XIII e XIV do Mali” em Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), pp. 34I-353. Página 347. ↵

[xliv] C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 49. ↵

[xlviii] Shuriye, Abdi O. e Ibrahim, Dauda Sh. 2013. “Timbuktu Civilization and its Significance in Islamic History” in Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Publishing MCSER, Roma-Itália Vol. 4 No 11 de outubro de 2013. Página 697. ↵

[l] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 45. ↵

[li] Levtzion, N. 1963. “Os Reis dos Séculos XIII e XIV do Mali” em Journal of African History, IV, 3 (1963), pp. 34I-353. Página 350. ↵

[lvii] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 55. ↵

[lx] Hunwick, John O. 2000. "Timbuktu" in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume X (2ª ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 508-510. Página 508. ↵

[lxi] Conrad, David C. 2009. Grandes Impérios do Passado. Impérios da África Ocidental Medieval: Gana, Mali e Songhay. Nova York: Facts on File, Inc. Página 59. ↵


Conteúdo

Educação durante o domínio francês Editar

Durante a colonização francesa da África Ocidental, a Marinha Francesa construiu algumas das primeiras escolas no Mali. [17] Em 1877, os franceses introduziram as primeiras escolas públicas no Mali, que eram conhecidas coletivamente como Escolas de Reféns, um nome inspirado nas tensões entre os chefes franceses e indígenas. [3] No entanto, em 1899, essas escolas públicas foram renomeadas para Escolas para Filhos de Chefes, ou Les Ecoles des Fils des Chefs, como parte de um esforço maior da França para cooperar com a população indígena. [17] [3] Joseph Gallieni e Louis Archinard são dois indivíduos que contribuíram para a abertura de algumas dessas primeiras escolas durante o século XIX. [17]

Durante o domínio francês do Mali, a educação era principalmente voltada para o ensino de informações sobre a França e a língua francesa, em vez das tradições malianas. [3] Muitos historiadores e autores, como Charles Cutter, acreditam que os malineses não gozavam de muitos direitos durante esta era e enfrentaram uma crise de identidade enquanto se adaptavam à cultura francesa. [3] [18] Para evitar essa crise, os malineses confiaram na manutenção das tradições orais. [18] Além disso, muitos malianos enviaram seus filhos para escolas tradicionais e islâmicas em um esforço para que seus filhos aprendessem mais sobre as tradições culturais do Mali. [3] Por exemplo, em Kayes, depois que as primeiras escolas francesas foram abertas, grupos étnicos decidiram enviar seus filhos para madrassas e medersas, ou escolas islâmicas privadas ensinadas em árabe. [19] [7] Esses grupos étnicos, junto com muitos outros no Mali, acreditavam que enviar crianças a essas escolas era uma forma de fazer uma declaração política e religiosa, adquirir mérito e criar uma identidade afro-muçulmana. [7] Em 1906, os franceses criaram sua própria versão de medersas em Djenné e Timbuktu na língua francesa, o que permitiu aos alunos buscar oportunidades de carreira dentro da administração francesa. [7]

Os franceses aprovaram a Portaria de 24 de novembro de 1903, que desenvolveu a educação pública na África Ocidental Francesa. [17] Isso foi parte de um esforço maior para criar mais escolas primárias e regionais. [3] Especificamente, este decreto desenvolveu mais escolas em vários níveis, desde o nível local ao secundário e profissional. [17] Além disso, permitiu que os professores ganhassem mais experiência e treinamento. [17] Embora este decreto tenha feito grandes avanços no desenvolvimento das escolas, historiadores como Boniface Obichere citam-no como discriminatório contra os malianos nativos. [17]

Educação pós-independência Editar

Em 1960, o Mali conquistou a independência da França. [3] Imediatamente após a independência, apenas cerca de um décimo dos malianos era alfabetizado e frequentava a escola. [3] Durante este período, muitos políticos da África Ocidental faziam parte do Rassemblement Démocratique Africain, um grupo político que se concentrava parcialmente no desenvolvimento de oportunidades de educação e alfabetização nas comunidades da África Ocidental. [17] Na verdade, Modibo Keïta, o primeiro presidente do Mali, usou essa ideologia junto com sua filosofia socialista para desenvolver um novo sistema educacional em 1962. [17] Este sistema se concentrou em equipar malianos com habilidades para contribuir para a economia do país. [17] Além disso, dividiu a estrutura educacional em dois ministérios. [17] Especificamente, o Ministério da Educação Básica, Juventude e Esportes supervisionou a educação primária, enquanto o Ministério da Educação Superior e Secundária e Pesquisa Científica foi encarregado da educação acima do nível primário. [17]

Em 1980, quando Mali era governado sob uma ditadura, as porcentagens de alfabetização caíram para níveis tão baixos quanto 13,6% para adultos e 25,6% para malianos com idades entre 15 e 24 anos. [3] No entanto, um movimento democrático na década de 1990 resultou no governo tornando a educação mais acessíveis, reduzindo as taxas educacionais e aumentando a produção de escolas. [20] Em 2000, essas mesmas percentagens de alfabetização aumentaram 26,7% e 38,7%, respectivamente. [3] Além disso, em 1999, o governo reconheceu oficialmente a educação bilíngue, uma vez que a maioria das famílias falava uma das cinquenta e seis línguas locais. [8] No entanto, como mencionado em um estudo de Jaimie Bleck na capital do Mali, Bamako, esta liberalização da educação levou a uma aglomeração de alunos nas escolas públicas e uma mudança no interesse pelas escolas privadas. [20] Por exemplo, algumas seções de Bamako têm mais de 40% dos alunos matriculados em escolas privadas. [19]

Ciclos de escolaridade Editar

Na década de 1980, a educação do Mali seguia um sistema de dois ciclos. [13] [2] Durante o primeiro ciclo, as crianças começaram sua educação em escolas estaduais com sete ou oito anos de idade por seis anos antes de fazer o exame CEP, que significa o Certificate de Fin d'Etudes du Premier Cycle em francês. [13] [2] Muitos alunos acharam o primeiro ciclo difícil, especialmente porque as escolas do Mali eram principalmente em francês, uma língua com a qual a maioria dos malineses, especialmente aqueles que viviam em áreas rurais, tinham pouca experiência. [13] Assim, 1 em cada 6 alunos do primeiro ciclo optou por frequentar as medersas. [13] Posteriormente, um aluno que concluiu com êxito o segundo ciclo de ensino, que durou três anos, foi elegível para fazer um exame conhecido como Diploma em Educação Básica, também conhecido como Diplôme d'Etudes Fondamentales. [13] [2] Depois de 2012, o governo fundiu esses dois ciclos em um, mas os exames que os alunos tinham que fazer permaneceram em vigor. [2] Atualmente, as crianças de 7 a 15 anos são obrigadas a frequentar a escola, que vai de outubro a junho de cada ano. [21]

Edição de hierarquia governamental

O sistema de educação do Mali é hierárquico na governança. [2] O Ministro Nacional e a Direcção Nacional de Ensino Superior são responsáveis ​​pelas universidades públicas a nível nacional. [2] O AE, que significa Académies d'Enseignment, dirige a educação regional. [2] Além disso, o CAP ou Centros de Atividades Pedagógicas é responsável pela educação local. [2]

A educação pública é dirigida e financiada a nível nacional. [22] O Ministério tem dois funcionários de nível ministerial, cada um chefiando um braço independente do Ministério. [22] O Ministre de L'Education de Base, de L'Alphabétisation et des Langues Nationales (Ministério da Educação Básica, Alfabetização e Línguas Nacionais) é responsável pela educação primária, programas de alfabetização fora das escolas e pela promoção e padronização de "Línguas Nacionais", como Bambara e Tamcheq, além da língua oficial, o francês. [22]

o Ministre des Enseignements Secondaire, supérieur et de la Recherche scientifique (Ministério da Educação Secundária e Superior e Pesquisa Científica) é responsável pelas escolas secundárias do governo, universidades e uma série de centros vocacionais, técnicos e de pesquisa. [22] Em 2008, o Ministro da Educação Básica, Alfabetização e Línguas Nacionais era Sidibe Aminata Diallo [23] e o Ministro da Educação Secundária e Superior, e Pesquisa Científica era Amadou Touré. [24]

Editar escolas primárias

Edições de escolas públicas

O Ministério da Educação do Mali é responsável pela gestão das escolas públicas no Mali. [6] Essas escolas seculares são ensinadas na língua nacional do Mali, o francês. [6] Muitos pais costumam pagar taxas para que seus filhos frequentem essas escolas, o que é considerado ilegal de acordo com a lei do Mali. [6] Além disso, os professores são mantidos sob um contrato que limita a quantidade de treinamento a que esses educadores têm acesso antes de começar a ensinar. [6] Isso leva a greves frequentes, falta de professores e turmas grandes. [6]

Editar escolas particulares

Em comparação com as suas contrapartes públicas, as escolas privadas no Mali são mais caras para frequentar. [6] Esses recursos extras combinados com valores menores de regulamentação governamental permitem que essas instituições tenham turmas menores. [6] Eles também dão aos alunos conexões de emprego após a formatura. [6] Como as escolas públicas, essas instituições também são ensinadas principalmente em francês, mas podem ser seculares ou religiosas. [6] Mali tem muitas escolas privadas cristãs que são administradas principalmente pela Igreja Católica. [6]

Educação secundária, terciária e superior Editar

Após a educação primária, os alunos podem optar por continuar em sua trajetória acadêmica e frequentar um lycée por três anos, que termina com um exame chamado Baccalaureat. [2] Um bom desempenho neste exame pode ajudar os alunos a obterem admissão em universidades para o ensino superior e superior. [2] Por outro lado, os alunos do Mali podem fazer um curso mais pré-profissional e optar por frequentar um programa vocacional de dois ou quatro anos para obter um diploma técnico. [2] Essas formas de educação geralmente se diversificaram nos últimos anos, uma vez que muitos alunos agora são alfabetizados em muitas línguas diferentes, como árabe, francês, latim e línguas locais. [7] Um exemplo famoso de uma escola secundária de longa duração no Mali é a Escola Técnica Superior. [3]

O aumento dos gastos com educação primária, especialmente para crianças em áreas rurais e meninas, teve o efeito indesejado de sobrecarregar o sistema de ensino médio. Ao final do ensino fundamental, os alunos podem fazer os exames de admissão ao ensino médio, chamados de diplôme d’étude fondamentale (Diploma de Estudos Fundamentais ou DEF). Em 2008, mais de 80.000 alunos foram aprovados nesses exames, mas cerca de 17.000 - 40% das quais eram meninas - tiveram sua colocação negada nas escolas secundárias. [25] Embora o governo afirme que esses alunos deveriam ser colocados em vagas limitadas com base em seus diplomas, idade e história acadêmica, alguns malianos afirmam que a discriminação de gênero desempenha um papel na negação de vagas para meninas. [25]

Os alunos no Mali não pagam propinas, mas o ensino secundário privado e o ensino profissional podem cobrar $ 600 por ano (em Bamako, 2008), numa nação onde o salário médio anual era de $ 500 em 2007, de acordo com o Banco Mundial. [25]

Uma das universidades mais antigas do mundo - Sankore em Timbuktu - data do século XV.

A Universidade de Bamako, também conhecida como Universidade de Mali, é uma agregação dos anos 90 de instituições de ensino superior mais antigas na área de Bamako. Seu campus principal fica no bairro de Badalabougou.

A universidade inclui cinco faculdades e dois institutos:

  • O corpo docente de Ciência e Tecnologia (Faculté des sciences et technical ou FAST),
  • A faculdade de Medicina (Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d'Odento-Stamologie ou FMPOS),
  • O corpo docente de Humanidades, Artes e Ciências Sociais (Faculté des Lettres, Langues, Arts et Sciences Humaines ou FLASH),
  • O corpo docente de Direito e Serviço Público (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques FSJP),
  • A Faculdade de Ciências de Economia e Gestão ("Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion" ou FSEG,
  • O Instituto de Gestão ("Institut Universitaire de Management" ou IUG),
  • O Instituto Superior de Treinamento e Pesquisa Aplicada ("Institut Supérieur de Formation et de Recherche Appliquée" ou ISFRA). [26]

Educação islâmica Editar

A educação islâmica começou na religião do Mali já no século 16, quando Timbuktu tinha 150 escolas do Alcorão. [19] Muitos malianos, especialmente aqueles que residem em Bamako, Sikasso e Kayes, frequentam as madrassas, que são escolas islâmicas privadas que são ensinadas principalmente em árabe para o ensino primário. [6] Essas instituições também ensinam francês, conforme exigido pela lei do Mali, e recebem ajuda internacional de regiões como os Estados Unidos e a Europa. [6] Da mesma forma, muitos malianos frequentam escolas informais do Alcorão, que ensinam os alunos a ler árabe usando as línguas locais. [6] Essas escolas não recebem ajuda do governo. [6] A medersa também ajuda os alunos a aprender a recitar o Alcorão, mas, adicionalmente, fornece aos alunos uma educação sobre questões ocidentais, história islâmica, europeia e francesa, matemática e árabe. [7]

Educação Comunitária Editar

Na década de 1990, a USAID, ou Agência dos Estados Unidos para o Desenvolvimento Internacional, criou um programa de escola comunitária principalmente para a educação primária em Mali. [6] Essas instituições não têm fins lucrativos e são supervisionadas principalmente por líderes comunitários. [6] As escolas comunitárias são ensinadas em francês ou nas línguas locais e oferecem aos alunos cursos técnicos, vocacionais e de alfabetização. [20] Essas escolas são geralmente flexíveis e atendem às necessidades de uma comunidade. [6] Os pais geralmente pagam para que seus filhos frequentem essas instituições por meio de recursos da comunidade. [6] No entanto, as escolas comunitárias aumentaram a taxa de educação primária em locais que são conhecidos por terem baixas taxas de matrícula, como Sikasso. [19]

Educação para surdos Editar

Devido à grande população da comunidade surda no Mali, o governo do Mali criou iniciativas para abordar as oportunidades educacionais para alunos surdos. [8] Em 1993, Bala Keita criou a EDA ou École pour les défients auditifs em Bamako, que oferece educação especial para surdos malianos. [8] Nas últimas três décadas, Sikasso, Koutiala, Ségou e Douentza viram um aumento nas escolas para surdos devido a figuras como Dramane Diabaté e Dominique Pinsonneault. [8] Um exemplo de escola para surdos é Jigiya Kalanso. [8]

Educação profissional e técnica Editar

Depois da escola primária, os malianos podem opcionalmente frequentar escolas vocacionais e técnicas que oferecem certificados pré-profissionais e educação. [17] A few examples of vocational and technical schools include the National School for Engineers, Lycée Technique, Lycée Agricole de Katibougou, the Agricultural Apprenticeship Centers at M'Pessoba and Samanko, and the School for Veterinarians in Bamako. [17] [3]

Literacy initiatives in Mali occur in three stages: learning to read and write, post literacy, and integrating literacy into life activities. [10] According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, or UNESCO, 35.47% of Malians that are 15 years or older are able to read and write as of 2018. [9] Specifically, the 2018 literacy rates for Malians ages 15-24 and 65 years and older were 50.13% and 19.08%, respectively. [9] For each of these three groups, the percentage of the male population that was literate was higher than the percentage of the female population that was literate. [9] Although the government implemented literacy programs immediately after Mali gained independence, these initiatives became much more prominent during the democratic movements of the 1990s. [5] Literacy programs currently have a large presence in rural communities. [10]

Post literacy Edit

Post literacy is defined as the process of helping neo-literates utilize their new knowledge and skills to develop the community and environment. [11] Post literacy efforts in Mali revolve around the idea of functional literacy which focuses on making practical applications of new literacy skills. [11] Functional literacy allows Malians to use their skills for community and national development. [10] Institutions such as the National Directorate of Functional Literacy and Applied Linguistics have been major proponents of providing adequate avenues for Malian neo-literates to practice their new skills. [11] For example, in one specific campaign for neo-literates in the 1990s, the number of neo-literates doubled to 60,282 in a four year span. [11]

A few examples of resources the National Directorate of Functional Literacy and Applied Linguistics, or DNAFLA, distributes are newspapers, educational booklets, paperbacks, and educational radio broadcasts and films. [11] The DNAFLA diversified their education after beginning the Further Education for Neo-literates program in 1977 which allowed local Malians to develop action plans for post-literacy education. [11] Two examples of trainings that the DNAFLA now offers are education in agriculture and health care. [11] Additionally, many post literacy institutions stress the importance of neo-literates using their skills to make a community impact. [11]

Integrated literacy Edit

Integrated literacy involves pairing literacy efforts with economic development. [12] Mali took part in UNESCO's Experimental World Literacy Program from 1965 to 1975 which involved integrated literacy programs. [12] This was part of a larger effort to incorporate educational reform into government policy. [12] This initiative transformed classrooms into a source of learning about the various economic spheres of Mali and also allowed students to pursue their entrepreneurial goals. [12] According to a study about integrated literacy in rural Mali, developments in integrated literacy for Bambara speakers led to economic growth in Mali. [12]

Amadou Sanogo, the leader of the 2012 coup d'état, citied the Malian education system as one of the reasons for his dissatisfaction with the Malian government. [7] Examples of problems with this education system include differences in vocabulary, an inability to access education, gender differences, and inefficiencies in education. [20] [13] [2] [27] [4] [28] [29] A few causes of these problems are geographic location, food and disease, and the poor quality of teaching. [8] [16] [15]

Language barriers Edit

When Mali became independent from France, only 7% of Malians were literate in French. [19] A study by J.R. Hough revealed that the French language is a barrier to education in Mali since many people have not been exposed to this language, and most Malians speak local languages. [8] [13] Neo-literates often have a difficult time utilizing their new skills since most publications and resources are in French. [10] Although Mali's first President, Modibo Keita, tried to utilize local languages, the government was still predominantly run in French. [19]

Access and regional differences Edit

With gross primary enrollment and gross higher education enrollment increasing by factors of 2.75 and 16.7 respectively in two decades, Mali faces a severe shortage of teachers. [2] In addition to logistical issues, political issues have negatively affected educational enrollment rates. [27] Specifically following the Crisis of 2012, over half a million citizens were displaced from their primary locations of education. [27] Additionally, this led to an increase in food prices which further decreased the amount of money parents had to send their children to school. [29] Similarly, many parents cannot afford school prices due to high school fees or the contributions required by community schools. [1]

Geographic location is often cited as a cause of low enrollment rates. [1] In 2009, although Bamako, Mali's capital, had a 90% primary enrollment rate, this percentage was much lower in rural areas of Mali, where 7 in 10 Malians live. [1] About 7 in 100 primary students live over 5 kilometers from their institution of education. [1] Additionally, 1 in 12 schools have zero classrooms or just one classroom, and many of these classrooms suffer from poor infrastructure. [1] A study about food insecure Malian villages revealed that a fifth of schools in these areas are outside. [27]

Food and nutrition Edit

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations considers Mali a low income food deficit country. [27] In 2005, the World Food Programme classified 2 in 5 Malians as being food insecure or susceptible to food insecurity. [27] According to a 2013 study by Masset and Gelli which surveyed food insecure villages, food insecurity leads to fewer educational opportunities. [27] Food insecurity decreases interest in obtaining education and puts more of a focus on labor. [27] Consequently, these villages had lower attendance rates than the rest of the country. [27] 40% of children who were old enough to attend primary school actually enrolled in primary school, which is about 20% lower than the national average. [27] Additionally, a lack of proper nutrition can be detrimental to a child's brain formation. [15] When children do not get proper nutrition, their physical and cognitive development suffers. [15] This leads to lower levels of participation in educational systems and low levels of performance for those who do participate. [15]

Disability and disease Edit

According to the World Health Organization, approximately 2 million Malians are considered disabled. [16] As of 2000, there were 200,000 people who were deaf in Mali. [8] A study by researcher and author Victoria Nyst revealed that meningitis and other diseases are main contributors to deafness, especially because Mali is a part of the African meningitis belt. [8] Most deaf Malians do not have access to formal education in sign language. [8] This is because there are no sign language classes for those who aren't deaf, leading to untrained teachers, interpreters, and parents. [8] This propagates a system in which the deaf population has less access to information about government initiatives such as major health campaigns. [8] In order to address this, the government has unsuccessfully tried to incorporate deaf students into hearing schools. [8] As an alternative, many deaf Malians are sent to other countries such as France and Russia. [8]

Malaria is also an issue which affects educational development. [15] In a 2010 study about the effects of malaria on the village of Diankabou, researchers found that malaria was responsible for the majority of deaths of children under 5 years old and over a third of all visits to health clinics. [15] Additionally, they found that malaria during pregnancy can negatively affect the development of a child. [15] Once a child is born, malaria can lead to speech delay and mental retardation for children under 5. [15] Thus, this disease is the main cause of students not attending class. [15] This study also revealed that malaria negatively influences educational and cognitive development. [15]

Gender disparities Edit

Net enrollment rates and literacy rates are generally lower for girls compared to boys in Mali. [30] This disparity can be further magnified by geographic differences. [4] A 2012 survey discovered that 84.9% of women in rural areas who were surveyed had not formally completed any form of education. [31] Only 2.2% of all women surveyed, including those who lived in urban areas, had completed primary school. [31] A study about pastoralist schools in the Gao region of Northeast Mali revealed that the primary enrollment rate for girls was less than 60% which was approximately 20% lower than the primary enrollment rate of boys in that region. [4] Whereas both boys and girls in Gao suffer from living many kilometers away from school in communities with frequent droughts, girls must face gender bias in schooling and societal pressures to marry early and earn a high dowry through pursuing higher education. [4] The government perpetuated this system by forcing mainly pastoralist boys to go to boarding school. [4]

According to a study about rural Mali by Laurel Puchner, women often have a difficult time incorporating new literacy skills outside of the classroom, especially because they face discrimination in the areas of society that utilize neo-literate skills. [28] [29] Additionally, many people, such as the researchers in this study, argue that students do not actually become literate through these programs due to inefficiencies in the implementation of literacy education. [28] [29] For example, in the four villages where the Puchner study took place, many Malians were illiterate mainly because they endured poor learning conditions and had few print resources to become educated. [29]

Inefficiencies Edit

Enrollment, completion, and dropout rates Edit

In 2017, the primary net enrollment rate in Mali was 61%. [30] In terms of gender, 65% of boys and 58% of girls were enrolled in primary education. [30] However, the completion rate of primary education was 50% during the 2017 school year. [30] In the 1980s, these numbers were far more inefficient. [13] In fact, 1 in 7 students dropped out within the first three years of primary education, and 20,000 students were not able to successfully graduate to their second year of education. [13] These repetitions were not limited to a student's first year. [13] Considering students who dropout, the average length of time to complete a 9 year cycle of Malian education was 23 years. [13] These inconsistent, lengthy cycles led to lower enrollment rates. [13] For example, at one point, 1 in 10 Timbuktu children were attending school. [13] Despite these facts, Mali still faces a shortage of teachers. [13] In 2008, the trained teacher to student ratio was 1 to 105. [1] These issues can lead to illiteracy for adult populations. [30] In 2015, the adult literacy rate was 33%. [30] A 2013 study about Malian education revealed that citizens with lower education levels are more likely to turn to agriculture and migration rather than continuing to pursue education. [32]

Quality of teaching Edit

In terms of the quality of education that Malian teachers have received, 1 in 3 primary education teachers have not completed their second cycle of education. [1] There have been initiatives such the Alternative Teaching Staff Recruitment Strategy or SARPE which tools teachers with 90 days of training, which many teachers cite as being too short in length. [1] Additionally, strikes related to wages are not uncommon. [1] For example, there was a strike by secondary teachers during the 2006 to 2007 school year related to the fact that teachers are paid on a monthly contractual basis with low wages. [1]

Policies post independence Edit

1962 Educational Reform Law Edit

This law was passed right after Mali gained independence in an effort to improve the quality of Malian education and the accessibility of schooling. [2] This was part of a larger effort to decolonize Mali post independence and shift the French-focused curriculum towards incorporating more information about Africa. [2] This law introduced the Functional Literacy Program which provided education for adults who could not read or write in their local languages. [2] Additionally, this reform created the cyclical educational structure and specifically split Malian education into a 5 year cycle followed by a 4 year cycle. [17]

Other policies Edit

The government continued to make changes to the Malian educational system in the 1960s. [17] In 1964, they created the National Pedagogic Institute made up of Malian, French, American, and UNESCO officials whose main purpose was to improve the Malian curriculum and textbooks. [17] However, this institute suffered from logistical inefficiencies and often didn't meet their original goals. [17] In addition to curriculum reform, the government initiated efforts to expand the number of schools. [17] By 1967, although there were 53 private schools, public schools were better able to compete with private education. [17] Towards the end of this decade, the government developed the existing structure of Malian education. [17] In 1968, the Ministry of National Education became a joint institution with the Ministry of Youth and Sports. [17] In 1969, the school cycle lengths were modified yet again to 6 years and 3 years, respectively. [17] Finally, in 1970, the government implemented the DEF, or Diploma d'Etudes Fondamental, which served as merit based exam to determine which students were able to transition to secondary and vocational schools following primary education. [17]

Policies post-democracy Edit

Policies in the 1990s Edit

In 1992, the Malian government officially declared access to education as a constitutional right. [5] These views were part of a larger democratic movement that took place in Mali in the 1990s. [20] Consequently, seven years later, on December 29th, 1999, the Mali National Parliament passed the Education Act which created more educational opportunities for Malians. [2] During this decade, the government focused on non traditional education for adults and literacy. [5] Additionally, the government made more efforts to recruit and train teachers by giving primary educators two to four years of training. [17] [1]

Ten Year Education Development Program Edit

In 1998, the government passed the Ten Year Educational Development Plan as a way to make education universal, higher in quality, and more accessible. [2] [1] Additionally, this plan was meant to reduce gender and geographic-based inequalities in education. [27] Also known as PRODEC or the Programme Décennal de Dévelopment de l'Education, this program made major developments in popularizing bilingual education and improving the quality of textbooks. [1] The government actually met their GER, or gross enrollment ration, goal by reaching a primary gross enrollment rate of 80% in 2008. [2] [1]

Policies in the 2000s Edit

The 2000s were defined by further improvements in Malian education, especially in terms of flexibility. [4] In addition to continuing to popularize bilingual education, the government allowed schools to complement core classes with community based classes. [4] After a 2002 study by Oxfam and the Institute for Popular Education revealed that educational resources are often difficult to access and convey gender biases, Oxfam developed a program to reduce educational gender discrimination and provide aid to low income families. [4] Researchers also advocated for more funding for adult education after discovering some of the inefficiencies in literacy programs for non traditional students. [5] Additionally, in 2009, the government implemented a nutritional program for underserved communities across Mali. [27]

Animatrices Edit

Animatrices are local women and community leaders that make an effort to reduce gender bias in education. [4] These individuals generally have experience with social work and teach parents about the importance of equality in Malian education. [4] Additionally, they ensure that girls are regularly attending class and encourage any girls that drop out of school to return to class. [4] In a study about Gao, where animatrices are prominent, researchers found that the number of girls that attended schools nearly doubled in a three year span. [4]

Foreign aid Edit

Since 1987, Child Aid USA has been an organization that works to implement literacy programs for Malians and improve community education. [29] Similarly, USAID, is an organization that provides aid to 9 regions of Mali to improve early literacy programs and community education. [16] One major program that this organization developed was the Selective Integrated Reading Activity that helped over 300,000 Malians learn how to read. [16] Most recently, in 2018, USAID provided over 18 million US dollars in aid to Mali. [16] One other US based organization that helped Mali was the United States Department of Agriculture which promoted the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program in Mali. [14] This three- part program provided more training to teachers which improved the reading abilities of students. [14] France and the World Bank are two other major donors to Mali. [1]

Disability policies Edit

The Equitable Access to Education Program, Education Emergency Support Activity, and the Persons with Disabilities Project have each improved the quality of education for disabled Malians. [16] In terms of education for the deaf, the French version of American Sign Language, or ASL, and Malian Sign Language, which is also known as LSM, are the two main forms of sign language in Mali. [8] Although LSM utilizes local languages, which Malians are more familiar with, the United States supports ASL initiatives in Mali through working with the Peace Corps. [8] In contrast, the World Federation of the Deaf is one of the major organizations that advocates for LSM. [8] In 2007, the Endangered Language Documentation Program of the Hans Rausing Endangered Language Project created Project LSM which researched LSM and released their findings to the National Library in Mali. [8]

SAFE Edit

In order to improve agricultural education, the Sasakawa-Global 2000 Institute created SAFE, or the Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education. [33] This fund was incorporated into Mali in 2002 and has given Malians opportunities to obtain either a two year diploma or a Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. [33] One major component of this program is the Supervised Enterprise Project which provides shadowing and internship opportunities for students and a chance for Malians to develop their agricultural opportunities through collaborating with farmer mentors and local universities. [33] For example, this program incorporates hundreds of hours of coursework and approximately 7 months of research. [33] Since 2002, over 150 professionals have graduated from this program or worked on a project, and 50 Malians received diplomas in 2007. [33]


Economy and Environment

25. Mali’s most frequently exported natural resources include gold, phosphates, salt, limestone, kaolin, uranium, and granite. Mali depends on agricultural exports and gold mining for its main revenue.

26. Gold is mined in Mali’s southern region and generates the third highest total gold production in all of Africa, after South Africa and Ghana.

27. Mali’s economic stability fluctuates with agricultural commodity and gold prices. Cotton, the country’s annual harvest, and gold exports represent 80 percent of Mali’s earnings.

28. Thirty four percent of the land is used as agricultural land, with 5.6 percent in arable land and 28.4 percent in permanent pastureland. Forests occupy ten percent of Mali.

29. Most of Mali’s economic activity is conducted in the area of the country the Niger River irrigates. The other 65 percent of the country is desert or semi desert land.

30. Almost half of Mali’s population lives below the international poverty line. Mali is one of the 25 poorest countries in the world. The average annual salary of a Malian is $1,500 (U.S. dollars) annually.

31. Mali’s environment concerns include deforestation, soil erosion, desertification and an inadequate potable water supply.

32. Natural environmental hazards/challenges include recurring droughts, infrequent flooding of the Niger River, and dust-laden hot haze that is common during the dry seasons.


Can Mali Escape Its Past?

This week, after weeks of protests over terrorism and corruption, Mali’s military arrested the country’s prime minister, Boubou Cissé, and president, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, who soon officially resigned his post. In the days since, powers around the world, including France, the United Nations, United States, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), have demanded the reinstatement of the elected government—even as many Malians have cheered its demise. The international community’s calls are unlikely to go heeded, and Mali seems set for more unrest in the days ahead.

To help explain how the country—once considered a key example of stability and democracy in the region—got here and what may follow, we’ve collected our best reads from the last few years.

This week, after weeks of protests over terrorism and corruption, Mali’s military arrested the country’s prime minister, Boubou Cissé, and president, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, who soon officially resigned his post. In the days since, powers around the world, including France, the United Nations, United States, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), have demanded the reinstatement of the elected government—even as many Malians have cheered its demise. The international community’s calls are unlikely to go heeded, and Mali seems set for more unrest in the days ahead.

To help explain how the country—once considered a key example of stability and democracy in the region—got here and what may follow, we’ve collected our best reads from the last few years.

The timing of the military’s action against Keita and Cissé may have come as a surprise, but the fact that the armed forces stepped in probably should not have been. In fact, it follows “a similar coup in 2012 that originated from the army base in the town of Kati, where Keita and Cissé are currently being held,” wrote the journalist Philip Obaji Jr. That coup “toppled then-President Amadou Toumani Touré and contributed to the fall of northern Mali to Islamist militants.” After a resolution at the U.N. Security Council that followed an official request for help from Mali’s interim government, France intervened in an operation that helped lead in 2015 to a peace agreement between the government and northern armed groups.

The French presence has continued in some form until today, yet so has the violence. As the terrorism expert James Blake wrote in 2019, Mali is populated by many different groups, all with complicated relationships. Their grievances are “long-standing,” he explained, “often relating to disputes over land and water.” And whereas disagreements used to be quickly resolved, “containing the fighting is getting harder and harder to do,” particularly because jihadi groups became adept at exploiting local concerns. In March last year, that violence seemed to enter a new phase when “100 armed men dressed as ethnic Dogon hunters stormed the village of Ogossagou in central Mali,” Blake explained. After killing more than 160 ethnic Fulani civilians, many homes were burned the ground. At the time, it was “the latest and most deadly episode in a campaign of systematic violence against Fulani herders, who are being forced to flee their land,” and looked likely to set off counterattacks.

A month after the strike on Ogossagou, the prime minister and the government resigned. As Leiden University’s Liesbeth van der Heide reported at the time, the chain of events was a sign that little had improved since the start of the French intervention. There had been scant progress on disarming rebel groups, she explained, and the “decentralization policy” enacted after the 2012-2015 war that “was meant to provide communities in the north with more autonomy in the hope that inclusion in governance would prevent local groups from taking up arms” had been ineffective and mismanaged. “In response, armed groups that control large swaths of territories in northern and central Mali are carving out a political and administrative role by force.” Such problems, she argued, wouldn’t go away just because one government replaced another.

She was correct. Throughout 2019, Mali remained on edge. In December, reported Política estrangeira’s Robbie Gramer, the Trump administration was “preparing to create a new special envoy position and task force to deal with security threats in the Sahel region of Africa, reflecting a growing alarm in Washington about the rise of extremist groups in West Africa, including ones affiliated with the Islamic State,” a measure that came as extremist groups carried out “increasingly deadly attacks in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso and spread their reach further south.” One reason for the uptick in violence, explained the experts Jacob Zenn and Colin P. Clarke, was that an apparent truce between al Qaeda and the Islamic State in the region had fallen apart, leading to a rise in scuffles between local affiliates.

By the summer, and in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic, some kind of reckoning seemed unavoidable. “Too many Malians—particularly the young, who make up a third of the country’s workforce—have no work. Unemployment among young people has reached almost 15 percent, up from 7 percent eight years ago before Keita took office,” Obaji noted. “The country’s poverty rate has increased from 45 percent in 2013 to almost 50 percent today. More Malians were displaced by insecurity in 2019 than at any time in the country’s history. The health care system is in shambles, and the threat of violence has left millions of kids without schools. Despite French military intervention, violent extremist groups—one of which kidnapped a perpetual runner-up in presidential elections—are still very active in parts of the country.”

With the Keita administration now out, observers are wary of what may follow. “Insisting that the Keita government be replaced by other politicians,” Obaji wrote, “will only mean bringing in another group of people who will likely use power for their personal benefit, thereby maintaining the status quo and leaving much of the country discontented.” Yet a military regime seems like a bad option, too. “France, the United States, the African Union, and ECOWAS must act to force the military to stand down,” urged Vicki J. Huddleston, who was U.S. ambassador to Mali between 2002 and 2005, and Witney Schneidman, a former U.S. deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs. “Once calm is restored and mediation efforts led by ECOWAS are resumed, negotiations must result in the selection of an interim president and prime minister that are acceptable to Keita’s party and the June 5 Movement.” Even more than that, “France and the United States should lead the international community in providing a comprehensive economic recovery plan similar to the Marshall Plan for postwar Europe that covers Mauritania, Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso.” Without sustained investment along those lines, the problems that have plagued Mali for years may only intensify.

Kathryn Salam is a deputy editor at Política estrangeira.


French intervention

2013 January - Islamist fighters capture the central town of Konna and plan to march on the capital. President Traore asks France for help. French troops rapidly capture Gao and Timbuktu and at the end of the month enter Kidal, the last major rebel-held town. European countries pledge to help retrain the Malian army.

2013 April - France begins withdrawal of troops. A regional African force helps the Malian army provide security.

2013 May - An international conference pledges $4bn to help rebuild Mali.

2013 June - Government signs peace deal with Tuareg nationalist rebels to pave way for elections. Rebels agree to hand over northern town of Kidal that they captured after French troops forced out Islamists in January.

2013 July-August - Ibrahim Boubacar Keita wins presidential elections, defeating Moussa Mara.

France formally hands over responsibility for security in the north to the Minusma UN force.

2013 September - President Keita appoint banking specialist Oumar Tatam Ly prime minister.

2013 September-November - Government relations with Tuareg separatists in the north steadily worsen, with occasional clashes.

2013 December - Parliamentary elections give President Keita's RPM 115 out of 147 seats.

France announces 60% reduction in troops deployed in Mali to 1,000 by March 2014.

2014 April - President Keita appoints former rival Moussa Mara prime minister in a bid to curb instability in the north.

2014 May - Fragile truce with Tuareg MNLA separatists breaks down in north. Separatists seize control of Kidal city and the town of Menaka, Agelhok, Anefis and Tessalit.

2014 September - Government, separatists begin new round of talks in Algeria to try end conflict over northern Mali, or Azawad as the secessionists call it.

Separatist MNLA opens an 'ɺzawad embassy'' in the Netherlands.

2014 October - Nine UN peacekeepers killed in the north-east - the deadliest attack so far on its mission in Mali.

2015 January - Mali's health minister says the country is free of the Ebola virus, after 42 days without a new case of the disease since October.

2015 April - Upsurge in fighting as Coordination of Azawad Movements northern rebels clash with UN peacekeepers in Timbuktu and seize town of Lere, try to recapture Menaka from pro-government militia.

2015 May - French troops kill leading al-Qaeda commanders Amada Ag Hama and Ibrahim Ag Inawalen in northern raid. Both were suspected of kidnapping and killing French citizens.

A peace accord to end the conflict in the north of Mali is signed by the government and several militia and rebel factions.

2015 June - Government and ethnic Tuareg rebels sign peace deal aimed at ending decades of conflict. The government gives the Tuareg more regional autonomy and drops arrest warrants for their leaders.

2015 July - Craftsmen in Mali working for the United Nations rebuild the world-renowned mausoleums in Timbuktu which were destroyed by Islamists in 2012.

2015 August - Seventeen people killed in attack by suspected Islamist militants on a hotel in the central Malian town of Sevare

2015 November - Islamist gunmen attack the luxury Radisson Blu hotel in the capital Bamako, killing 22.

2016 August - Several attacks on foreign forces. More than 100 peacekeepers have died since the UN mission's deployment in Mali in 2013, making it one of the deadliest places to serve for the UN.

A Malian jihadist is found guilty of ransacking the fabled desert city of Timbuktu. He expressed regret in the unprecedented trial before the International Criminal Court.

2017 January - At least 37 people are killed by a car bomb at a military camp in Gao housing government troops and former rebels brought together as part of a peace agreement.

2017 February - Malian soldiers and rival militia groups including Tuareg separatists take part in a joint patrol, a key part of a peace agreement reached in 2015.

2017 April - President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita announces a new government, appointing close ally Abdoulaye Idrissa Maiga as prime minister.

2017 June - Al-Qaeda-aligned group Nusrat al-Islam wal Muslimeen claims responsibility for an attack on an hotel popular with Westerners east of Bamako, killing two civilians.

2018 January - Some 14 soldiers are killed in a suspected Islamist attack on a military base at Soumpi. Elsewhere, 26 civilians die after their vehicle hits a landmine.

2018 July - President Keita is re-elected as jihadist violence continues to plague the north and east of the country.

2020 August - President Keita is overthrown in a military coup after months of protests demanding his resignation.


Mali Military Coup: Why the World Is Watching

Instability in the country is likely to ripple across West Africa and beyond.

The military in Mali arrested the country’s president and prime minister on Tuesday in a coup staged after weeks of destabilizing protests over a disputed election, government corruption and a violent Islamist insurgency that has lasted for eight years.

The streets of Bamako, the capital, exploded with both jubilation and gunfire after President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta and his prime minister, Boubou Cissé, were detained along with other government officials. Around midnight, the president announced on state TV that he was resigning.

The effects of the turmoil could spill beyond the borders of Mali, a country whose strategic location has geopolitical implications for West Africa, the Sahel, the broader Arab world, the European Union and the United States.

French forces and American advisers show the West’s keen interest

France has remained deeply involved in the affairs of Mali, its former colony, decades after the country gained independence.

For the French forces battling Islamists in the region, Mali is part of what some call France’s “Forever War” in the Sahel, the far-stretching land beneath the Sahara.

The United States, too, has military advisers in Mali, and American officials have a keen interest in a stable Malian government whose interests align with the West.

”Mali’s internal governance and security challenges are driving instability across the Sahel,” said Kyle Murphy, a former senior analyst with the Defense Intelligence Agency who is now with the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

“This matters to the United States,” Mr. Murphy added, “because instability in the region allows violent extremists to prey on populations and advance their objectives, and displaces millions of civilians.”

Extremists driven from power, but not defeated

After a previous military coup in 2012, Islamist rebels, some with ties to Al Qaeda, took advantage of the disarray to seize control of large areas of the country’s north, including the ancient city of Timbuktu.

Under their brutal rule, Malians in those areas under jihadist control were forced to follow a strict religious code or risk severe punishment. Women were forced into marriage, and historical sites were demolished.

The rebels lost control of their territories after French forces intervened to help the Malian military drive them out. But armed groups continue to terrorize civilians in the countryside, and the violence has metastasized across borders into the neighboring countries of Burkina Faso and Niger.

More than 10,000 West Africans have died, over a million have fled their homes and military forces from West Africa and France have suffered many losses.

“That is the major concern here,” said Chiedo Nwankwor, a researcher and lecturer at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. “These various jihadist movements in Africa do not bode well for any Western government.”

A success story turned sour

In the years following its independence from France in 1960, Mali was viewed as having achieved a good track record in democratic government.

In 1996, a New York Times correspondent on a reporting trip to Mali made note of the pervasive poverty afflicting the citizenry but said the West African country nevertheless had become “one of this continent’s most vibrant democracies.”

But Mali, once cited as a democratic role model in the region, has lurched from one crisis to another since the 2012 coup that overthrew President Amadou Touré a month before elections were to be held.

The factors behind that coup, in part a consequence of the Arab Spring, underscore Mali’s position connecting North Africa with the rest of the continent. After the fall of Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi in Libya in 2011, hundreds of heavily armed Malian rebels who had fought for the Libyan leader returned home and attacked northern towns, creating the chaos that preceded the military takeover.

Another leader falls

Mr. Keïta, the president arrested in Tuesday’s coup, won office in a landslide in 2013. But whatever hopes Mr. Keita raised when he took 78 percent of the vote, his star, and his genuine popularity, gradually faded.

He vowed “zero tolerance” for corruption, but Malians came to view him with mistrust.

Mr. Keita won re-election in 2018, when he ran for a second term, but only after being forced into a runoff. In recent weeks, protesters complained that those in charge had not done enough to address the corruption and bloodshed that have plagued the country. And they accused the president of stealing a parliamentary election in March and installing his own candidates.

After security forces shot and killed at least 11 protesters earlier this summer, the demands for reform only grew.

A team of regional mediators arrived in the capital, Bamako, to try to ease the unrest.


Democracia

1992 - Alpha Konare wins multiparty elections to become Mali's first democratically-elected president.

1995 - Peace agreement with Tuareg tribes leads to return of thousands of refugees.

1999 - Former President Moussa Traore sentenced to death on corruption charges, but has his sentence commuted to life imprisonment by President Konare.

1999 October - Several people killed in fighting in the north between members of the Kunta tribe and an Arab community over local disputes.

2000 February - Konare appoints former International Monetary Fund official Mande Sidibe prime minister.

2001 December - Manantali dam in southwest produces its first megawatt of hydro-electricity, 13 years after it was completed.


Clima

Mali lies within the intertropical zone and has a hot, dry climate, with the sun near its zenith throughout most of the year. In general, there are two distinct seasons, dry and wet. The dry season, which lasts from November to June, is marked by low humidity and high temperatures and is influenced by the alize and harmattan winds. o alize blows from the northeast from November to January and causes a relatively cool spell, with temperatures averaging 77 °F (25 °C). From March to June the harmattan, a dry, hot wind that blows from the east out of the Sahara, sweeps the soil into dusty whirlwinds and is accompanied by daytime temperatures of about 104 to 113 °F (40 to 45 °C).

During the rainy season, from June to October, the monsoon wind blows from the southwest. Preceded by large black clouds, the heavy rainstorms often include gusty winds and much lightning and thunder. Temperatures are somewhat lower in August, when most of the rainfall occurs.

The country can be divided into three climatic zones—the Sudanic, the Sahelian, and the desert zones. Sudanic climate occurs in about one-third of the country, from the southern border to latitude 15° N. It is characterized by an annual rainfall of 20 to 55 inches (510 to 1,400 mm) and average temperatures of 75 to 86 °F (24 to 30 °C). The Sahel, or the area bordering the Sahara, receives between 8 and 20 inches (200 and 510 mm) of rain per year and has average temperatures between 73 and 97 °F (23 and 36 °C). In the desert (Sahara), temperatures during the day range from 117 to nearly 140 °F (47 to 60 °C), while at night the temperature drops to 39 to 41 °F (4 to 5 °C).


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